Hyponatremia is typically caused when the sodium level in your body falls below 135 mEq/L. The normal sodium level in your body is anywhere between 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L.) Sodium is important in your body as it maintains the blood pressure and supports the nerves and muscles in the tasks to be performed by them. It also performs the duty of regulating the body’s fluid balance. There are many various causes of Hyponatremia, here are some of the primary ones.
- Medication and drugs
Medication of certain types can be a primary cause of hyponatremia. These medicines include water pills (diuretics), antidepressants and other pain relief medications. These medications can cause you to perspire or urinate a lot more than usual causing your sodium levels to drop and thereby leading to hyponatremia.
- Heart, liver and kidney problems
The sodium level in your body can be reduced when there are excess unrequired fluids that accumulate in your body. These fluids can be accumulated if you suffer from congestive heart failure or any conditions related to the liver and kidney. The fluids essentially dilute the sodium in your body causing the level to go down.
- Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH)
Retention of water in your body is another reason for your sodium levels to go down and become a daunting cause of hyponatremia. This is exactly what happens in this condition, high levels of the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) are produced and result in fluid accumulating in your body. These fluids should ideally exit your body through your urine.
- Excess water
When you perspire or urinate, you lose sodium from your body. When involved in a tedious activity, you perspire and lose a lot of sodium from your body. If you drink too much water during these activities you are prone to go low on sodium and create a cause of hyponatremia. Apart from that, even if you drink too much water, in general, you might be causing sodium levels in your body to drop.
- Recreational drug Ecstasy
Ecstasy, as a drug, can cause your body to lose fluids at a very high pace and perspire more than usual. This can be a reason for your sodium levels to drop significantly. The amphetamine in the drug shoots your risk of fatal cases of hyponatremia.
- Hormonal changes
Addison’s disease (adrenal gland deficiency) affects the ability of your adrenal gland to produce the hormones that help maintain a stable amount of sodium, potassium, and water in your body. Apart from this, low levels of the thyroid hormone can cause low blood-sodium levels as well.